5.6.2 Charge State Fractions

Due to the not very well known detection efficiencies used at low energies of the MSPs at JUSO the uncertainties in the charge state fractions at lower energies are quite large. The errors were estimated on a conservative basis. Only limited data on detection efficiencies for MCPs or MSPs are available [22,23,24,25] but despite these problems in determining the detection efficiencies at JUSO the results obtained at ILENA and JUSO agree pretty well, at least for the oxygen measurements. Hydrogen measurements were only done at JUSO. The detection efficiency data obtained for carbon at JUSO is of lower quality as no data using a reflected beam are available. Further measurements would have to be made to better calibrate the carbon measurements done at JUSO.

March 2001 - Martin Wieser, Physikalisches Institut, University of Berne, Switzerland